in πŸ““ Notes

Cyberattacks, Crime and Defenses

Notes for the course 2IMS20.

Web apps and attack principles

GET Parameters:

  • Passed in the URL
  • Vulnerable to XSS1
  • Only to request data, not modify1
  • Recorded in browser history1

POST Parameters:

  • Parameters hidden
  • Data sent to server on HTTP request body
  • Does not get recorded in browser history1

HTTP Week Sessions (exception: HTTP keep-alive, reuse TCP)

  • HTTP is connectionless and stateless, does not have a state.
  • All info needed to process a request is stored in the browser

SSL: Secure Sockets Layer. Protocol that allows authentication, encryption of data over the Internet.

OWASP Top 10

  1. Injection: untrusted data sent to interpreter.
    • Prevention: using prepared statements, stored procedures, whitelist input validation, escaping all user supplied input.
  2. Broken Authentication: app functions related to authentication and session management are implemented incorrectly. Allows attackers to assume others' identities.
    • Prevention: multi factor authentication, no default credentials, password checks, limit login attempts, client side secure session manager to create random session IDs.
  3. Sensitive Data Exposure: sensitive data may not be protected well.
    • Prevention: classify data, controls per classification, don’t store data unnecessarily, encrypt resting sensitive data, proper key management, encrypt data in transit, disable caching for responses that contain sensitive data.
  4. XML External Entities (XEE): old XML processors evaluate external entities references within XML documents. External entities can be used to disclose internal files using the file URI handler, internal file shares, internal port scanning, remote code execution, DDoS attacks.
    • Prevention: use less complex data formats such as JSON, avoid serializing sensitive data. Patch/upgrade all XML processors. Disable XML external entities and DTD processing in XML parsers. Whitelisting for server side input validation.
  5. Broken Access Control: restrictions or what authenticated users can do is not properly enforced.
    • Prevention: deny by default, implement access control mechanisms once and reuse in the app. Model access controls should enforce record ownership rather than group privileges. Disable webserver listing and ensure file metadata/backup files are not in the web root. Log access control failures and alert. Rate limit APIs.
  6. Security Misconfiguration: misconfigured HTTP headers, verbose errors messages with sensitive information, open cloud storage.
    • Prevention: minimal paltform without unnecessary features. Review/update configs. Segmented application architecture that provides effective, secure component separation. Repeatable hardening process to verify effectiveness of configs and settings in all environments.
  7. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS): allows attacker to execute scripts on victims browser. Occurs when an app includes untrusted data without proper validation or updates on existing page with user supplied data.
    • Prevention: use frameworks that automatically escape XSS by design, escaping untrusted HTTP requests based on the context of HTML output. Context sensitive encoding when modifying browser document on client side. Content Security Policy (CSP) headers.
  8. Insecure Deserialization: leads to remote code execution.
    • Prevention: integrity check, enforce strict type constraints, isolate and run code that deserializes in low profile environments.
  9. Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities: self explanatory. Can cause data loss.
    • Prevention: remove unused dependencies, features. Always check for vulnerabilities. Only use official apps. update and patch.
  10. Insufficient Logging & Monitoring: coupled with missing or ineffective integration with incident response, allows attackers to further attack systems, maintain persistence.
    • Prevention: ensure all login, access control failures and server side input validation is logged with sufficient context. Establish effective monitoring/alerting systems. Establish and adapt incident response and recovery plans.

Cookies

  • Used to implement sessions
  • Domain + path (subdomain should be a sub of cookie domain)
  • HTTP responses may contain cookies that set a value in the browser
  • Can be viewed/changed easily on the client side manually (Temperdata for example)

Supercookie

  • Associated to first level domain maintainer by Internet Providers.
  • Tracking via IP
  • Often blocked by browsers

BeEF Project

  • The Browser Exploitation Framework (BeEF)
  • Fingerprinting, adapt response to request

SQL Injection

  • Prevention
    • Bind variables (distinguish code and data)
    • Sanitization
    • Minimize DB privileges

XSS

  • Types
    • Reflected (non-persistent): work.com/error.php?message=<script>...</script>
    • Stored (persistent): post message on forum containing <script>
  • Rules
    • Arbitrary scripts can’t read cookies
    • Cookies cannot be read from another domain
  • Prevention
    • Sanitization
    • Signature-based Filters

Targeted attacks

Watering Hole Attacks

  • Attack website that is often used by targeted victims
  • When victim visits target website, they are infected via exploit

Living off the land

  • Obtain credentials without malware (e.g. social engineering, look over the shoulder)
  • Once inside the network, use credentials to do damage through legitimate channels
  • Hard to detect

Critical infrastructure

SCADA

  • Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
  • Sends commands to programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)
  • Uses specialized, proprietary protocols
  • Used to be isolated, now often remotely controlled

Stuxnet (2009)

  • Breakthrough of cyber-physical attacks
  • Broke centrifuges in Iranian nuclear enrichment plant
  • Got inside the network through USB stick with 0-day exploits
  • Targeted attack, but spread all over the world
  • Provided false feedback to controllers

HAVEX

  • Goal: gather information and gain persistent access
  • Focus on energy companies
  • Likely state-sponsored

BlackEnergy 3 (2015)

  • Attack on Ukranian power grid
  • Dropped through phishing attachment
  • Network reconnaisance and develop malware using in-house devices
  • Attack transmission substations by opening breakers
  • DoS attack on customer support

Industroyer (2016)

  • Attack on Ukranian power grid (again)
  • More automated than BlackEnergy
  • Attacked distribution substations

Case studies

CryptoLocker (2013)

  • Breakthrough of ransomware
  • Encrypts host data

Petya (2016)

  • Overwrites boot record (no encryption)
  • Spreads without human intervention

WannaCry (2017)

  • Highest damage ransomware
  • Encrypts host data
  • Spreads without human intervention
  • Used ExternalBlue (SMB) exploit

NotPetya (2017)

  • Encrypts host data
  • Asks for ransom, but files are never decrypted (actually not a ransomware)

Equifax Hack (2017)

  • Exposed personal data
  • Used vulnerability in Apache web server

DDoS

  • Prevention: make it harder to use (e.g. banned by PayPal)
  • Rate limit requests

Building automation security

Operational Technology (OT)

  • Hardware and software that controls or monitors physical processes
  • Building Automation Systems (BAS)
  • Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)
  • Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)
  • Industrial Control Systems (ICS)

Building automation network

  • Management: workstations
  • Automation: monitoring and building controllers
  • Field: room controllers, cameras
  • BACnet often used over all layers

Attacking BAC

  • Build mockup with common controllers and software

Protocols

  • BACnet: used for control
  • RTSP: control cameras
  • RTP: audio/video transfer for cameras

Prevention

  • Monitoring
  • Network segregation

Evolution of attacks

Targeted ransomware

  • Growing in popularity
  • Higher damages

Maastricht ransomware attack

  • Started with phishing
  • Lateral movement (e.g. privilege escalation through outdated OS vulnerability)
  • Disable antivirus
  • Actual ransomware attack

Targeted phishing

  • The volume of phishing is going down, because attacks are more targeted

Other results from 2020 SonicWall report

  • Formjacking new entry
  • Living off the land and supply chain attacks are increasing
  • Mobile malware increasing
  • IoT attacks increasing
  • Use of 0-days decrasing

Read teaming in OT

Red teaming

  • Independent group
  • Targeting organization as a whole
  • Goal: improve cyber resilience

Risks of red teaming

  • Damages caused by side effects
  • Incorrect attribution of real attacks
  • Loss of trust from employees

Trends

  • Spear phishing
  • Watering hole
  • Supply chain
  • Off-the-shelf capabilities
  • Living off the land
  • Codification of OT knowledge
  • Attack amplification (damaging infrastructure, disrupting incident response)

IoT and detection

IoT

  • Potential for physical damage
  • Move to IP increased risk
  • Commonly targeted for botnets

Rejection-based detection (knowledge-based)

  • Signatures
  • Heuristics
  • False positive problem
  • Largely ineffective

Acceptance-based detection (behaviour-based)

  • Allowlist (manual)
  • Anomaly detection (automatic)
    • Flows (quantitative, analyse patterns in network)
    • Payload (qualitative, analyse individual packets)
  • Only effective for predictable environments (such as OT)

Both rejection and acceptance-based can be configured with different accuracy levels to balance false positives and false negatives.

Monitorability

Criticism on defense methods

  • Prevention: there will always be bugs
  • Knowledge-based detection: you don’t have all the knowledge
  • Specification-based detection: only useful for unchanging environments (IoT)
  • Black box anomaly detection: poor actionability, false positives problem

How to evaluate intrusion detection systems

  • False positives, false negatives
  • Actionability
  • Adaptability
  • Scalability

What should we do

  • Write software to make it easier to monitor (supervise)
  • How? We don’t know
  • But it should be easier than writing secure software

Defensive policies

Example of policies

  • Change password often
  • Encryption

Encryption in ICS networks

  • No extra security in SCADA
  • Can negatively affect security
  • Complicated troubleshooting
  • Why: the endpoint is much more vulnerable than the cable

So long, and no thanks for the externalities

  • Users rejection of security advice is rational from economic perspective
  • Indirect costs to individual users are small

Where do all the attacks go

  • Many attacks cannot be made profitable, even when many profitable targets exist
  • There are many more users than attackers

Unfalsifiablity of security claims

  • Evidence to provide insecurity is easy, evidence to prove security is hard
  • Potential way to “prove” security: collect data on attacks

Zero trust

  • Identify critical assets
  • Segment the network
  • Enforce policies
  • Monitor

Cybercrime markets

Information assymetry

  • Information must be shared between buyer and seller
  • Information must be verifiable
  • Otherwise all good sellers are pushed out of the market

Adverse selection

  • Buyer/seller cannot evaluate each other

Moral hazard

  • Buyer/seller change their behavior after sale (break of trust)

Mitigation

  • Reputation systems
  • Third party moderation
  • Escrowing

Multi-signature escrow

  • Need 2 out of 3 parties to approve
  • Reduce risk of exit scam (by market owners)

Human factor in cybercrime (Leukfeldt)

Risk factors for cybercrime victims

  • Young people
  • Spend time online
  • Low self control
  • Online routine activities

Characteristics of offenders

  • Young, male
  • Some influence of friends
  • Shift from offline to online

What made the research possible

  • Access to police reports
  • Wire taps/interrogations/searches

Findings

  • Core members have offline social ties
  • Technical skills are found online
  • Money mules are recruited offline
  • Most people involved are non-technical
  • Dark net markets have offline dimension

Advanced social engineering

Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

  • How humans change their attitude
  • Peripheral route: unconscious communication (system 1)
  • Central route: stimuli carefully processed (system 2)

Human persuasion factors

  1. Reciprocation: subjects feels obligated to help each other (normative commitment).
  2. Consistency: subjects tend to be consistent with previous decisions, even if those were bad (continuance commitment).
  3. Social proof: subjects act similar to peers (affective commitment).
  4. Likeability: subjects trust people they like.
  5. Authority: subjects fear punishment.
  6. Scarcity: subjects react impulsively when the offer is “limited”.

Single-stage: target all customers of mybank.com Multi-stage: gather information for second stage (spear phishing)

Human cognition model

  • Sensory input buffers
  • Working Memory (WM)
  • Long-Term Memory (LTM)
  • Central Executive (CE)

Information Processing Model

  1. Stimulus: sensory information that triggers a cognitive process.
  2. Perception: translates the stimulus into “percepts” and fetches memories from LTM.
  3. Attention: modulates access to consciousness.
  4. System 1/System 2: fast/slow thinking.
  5. Behavior

Most SE attacks try to exploit system 1

  • Match target parameters (timing, language)
  • Poisoning perception (priming)
  • Competing with system 2 (scarcity, authority)
  • Avoiding anomalies (typos, detection of spoofing)
  • How to influence behavior?

What we typically do

  • Make people aware
  • Make rules
  • Convey knowledge

What we should do

  • Focus on behavior rather than awareness
  • Behavior = awareness * motivation * opportunity
  • Need to reach minimum threshold for all three factors in order to affect behavior
  • Be very specific when describing behavior

Ability

  • Knowledge
  • Skill

Solution: educate

  • Inform (knowledge)
  • Train (skill)

Motivation

  • Can be intrinsic/extrinsic
  • Self efficacy (do you think you can do it)
  • Self determination (how much effort do you put into it)

Solution: motivate

  • Motivate informal leaders
  • Show the risk

Opportunity

  • Person is unable to do what they should

Solution: facilitate

  • Make things easier

Malware evolution

Hacker evolution

  • From: security enthusiasts, do-it-all, innovate
  • To: economic attacker, composite model, scale up

Commoditization

  • Spam: selling products
  • Extortion: ransomware
  • Fraud: fake clicks on ads, pump and dump, credit hard theft
  • Scareware: fake antivirus
  • Booter service: DDoS
  • Explot-as-a-service: exploit kitsj

This notes are not yet finished. As of right now, they’re heavily based on a friend’s (Nimo), notes which you can find here.


  1. Prevents only eavesdropping (Internet Cafe Attacks) ↩︎

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