in πŸ““ Notes

Fault, Error, Failure

Table of Contents

2 min read

Developers are human and that leads to bugs. An human error creates a fault, which generates an error, which may generate more errors and lead to a failure. Usually, the biggest problem is to identify the faults and not to fix them.

  • Human error: an human action which produces software faults.
  • Fault: an omission, a defect, in the software caused by an human error that changes the way a certain system component behaves.
  • Error: an unexpected change in the system behavior and state caused by a fault.
  • Failure: an observable error. The system deviates from its specification.
graph LR
  he[Human Error] --> Fault
  Fault --> Error
  Error --> Error
  Error --> Failure
  Failure --> Error

When an error occurs, it can either be detected and processed, making sure the service continues to work. Or it can cause a failure where the service starts being unavailable.


  • Fault: the power cord is unplugged.
  • Error: the CPU and other components do not work.
  • Fault: the computer does not turn on.

Latent State

A latent fault, i.e., a fault that is there but cannot be detected, can cause a latent error that can turn out causing a failure.

Fault Classification

  • Cause
    • Physical: electric phenomena, …
    • Human
      • Accidental: bad design, bad operation…
      • Intentional: calculated attack
  • Origin
    • Internal: internal components, program, …
    • External: lack of energy, high temperature, …
  • Duration
    • Permanent
      • Persist until being repaired
      • Easy to detect
      • Usually hard to repair
    • Temporary or transient
      • Only during a short period of time
      • Hard to reproduce, detect
      • Usually easy to repair
      • Some systems may tolerate transient faults by self-repair
  • Independence
    • Independent
      • Probability of occurrence of a fault in a component is independent of other components
      • Usually, hardware related
    • Dependent
      • Related probability of occurrence
      • Examples: software failures, multiple hardware components (same physical location)
  • Determinism
    • Deterministic
      • Only depend on a certain input sequence and the current system state
      • Easy to reproduce
    • Non deterministic
      • Can depend on non-deterministic factors such as threads, clock reads, message order, …
      • Hard to reproduce and debug

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